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新加坡: 课本上的精典压制型国家

23/01/10

作者/来源:Phil Robertson Human Rights Watch
新加坡文献馆译

近日一些民运活动分子的判刑展示了政府对多元政治缺乏容忍。

新加坡持续成为课本上的政治压制型国家,批评或者挑战执政党权力的任何人会招致不断的骚扰,诉讼或者甚至于监禁。

人权观察组织在今日发布的2010年世界报告书中指出,当新加坡正从国际金融危机的阴影中走出,并将准备在今年稍后时间举行大选的当儿,政府应该利用这时机改善其人权记录。

这本612页的报告书是该组织的第20份全球人权常年报告书,简述超过90个国家的主要人权发展大趋势。新加坡篇章中指出政府在数个重要的人权领域中犯错,其中包括表述自由,结社与集会自由。当新加坡自豪在东南亚经济群体中表现不凡时,却对其人民人权持续不于理睬。

人权观察组织的副亚洲司长费尔罗柏遜指出:那些指责或挑战执政党的政治权力者会招致不断的骚扰,诉讼或者甚至于监禁。

在公开场所表述观点的自由是受局限在市区内的一个演说广场。在公众行为2009法令规定下,任何一个有活动目的的游行或者集会都必须在事前先行获得警方的许可证。

严峻的法制下,比如内部安全法令,刑事(临时条款),滥用药品法,以及不良出版物法都是政府可以用来鉗制温和性批评言论。2009年12月,3名长期的政府批评者 – 徐顺全博士,徐淑珍和甘尼安巴南,因为派发批评政府的传单而被定罪。过后,3人因为拒绝缴付罚款而被判入狱受短期囚禁。

关注形象的新加坡有时会选择放弃刑事诉讼而改用骚扰,比如以诽谤诉讼获取巨额赔偿来打击华尔街日报和远东经济论坛,并以新闻印刷与出版法令来规范流通量等权利上的限制。

人权观察组织呼吁取消体罚和死刑,其中在刑法典内约30种罪行要受到鞭刑处罚,20种与药物有关的罪行是必须以死刑处决。人权观察组织指出新加坡拒绝所有要求取消末经审讯的强制性拘押,拒绝接受鞭刑是残忍,非人道和有辱人格的处罚,并坚持以死刑处罚毒品走私,这些都违反国际人权组织的标准。

人权观察组织批评新加坡持续不顾呼吁推翻对在法制上禁止男性进行私人与双方同意的性行为。

罗柏遜认为当新加坡展望未来以及即将举行大选的当儿,应该放下长期的固执去接受国际人权组织的人权准则。新加坡应该有相信人民的信心,让他们享有表述自由,集会自由和结社自由,因为人民的持续参与有助国家的继续繁荣。

Singapore: “Textbook example” of repressive state
Friday, 22 January 2010
http://yoursdp.org
Phil Robertson
Human Rights Watch
Recent convictions of democracy activists show intolerance towards pluralism

Singapore remains the textbook example of a politically repressive state. Individuals who want to criticize or challenge the ruling party’s hold on power can expect to face a life of harassment, lawsuits, and even prison.

As Singapore begins to emerge from the international financial crisis and focuses on elections that are likely to be held later this year, the government should act to improve its poor human rights record, Human Rights Watch said in its World Report 2010, released today.

The 612-page report, the organization’s 20th annual review of human rights practices around the globe, summarizes major human rights trends in more than 90 nations and territories worldwide. Its chapter on Singapore says the government fails to meet human rights standards in a number of critical areas, including freedom of expression, association, and assembly. While Singapore has touted its prowess as a leading economic nation in Southeast Asia, it continues to falter in respecting the rights of its own population, Human Rights Watch said.

“Singapore remains the textbook example of a politically repressive state,” said Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “Individuals who want to criticize or challenge the ruling party’s hold on power can expect to face a life of harassment, lawsuits, and even prison.”

Freedom to express views publicly continues to be largely limited to the tiny Speaker’s Corner in the city-state, while any procession or assembly for a “cause-related activity” must have prior police approval under the Public Order Act of 2009.

Draconian laws such as the Internal Security Act (ISA), Criminal Law (Temporary Provisions) Act (CLA), Misuse of Drugs Act (MDA), and Undesirable Publications Act remain available to the government to muzzle peaceful critics. In December 2009, three long-time government critics-Dr. Chee Soon Juan, Chee Siok Chin, and Gandhi Ambalam-were convicted of distributing flyers critical of the government. After refusing to pay fines, all three were sentenced to short prison terms.

But appearance-conscious Singapore sometimes forgoes criminal prosecution in favor of other forms of harassment, such as defamation suits seeking punitive damages that snagged the Wall Street Journal and the Far Eastern Economic Review, restrictions on publication licenses under the longstanding Newspaper and Printing Presses Acts, and enforcement actions limiting rights.

Human Rights Watch called for the repeal of laws allowing corporal and capital punishment, noting that the penal code authorizes caning for about 30 offenses, and sets out more than 20 drug-related offenses for which capital punishment is mandatory. Singapore resists all calls to rescind arbitrary detention without trial, refuses to recognize that caning constitutes torture or cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment, and insists on maintaining mandatory death penalties for offenses such as drug trafficking that are contrary to international human rights standards, Human Rights Watch said.

Human Rights Watch criticized Singapore’s continued legal ban on private and consensual sexual relations between men and called for it to be overturned.

“As Singapore looks to its future and new elections, the time is long overdue for it to abandon its stubborn defiance of international human rights standards,” Robertson said. “Singapore should have the confidence to trust its people with full freedom of expression, assembly, and association, and recognize that their participation is critical for the country’s continued prosperity.”

youtube link: World Report 2010 by Human Rights Watch

http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/01/20/singapore-textbook-example-repressive-state

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