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谢太宝博士

28/03/09

作者/来源:新加坡文献馆


1961年谢太宝手捧南大马来语演讲比赛奖杯;
图片来源:http://www.nantah.org.my/photos.htm

谢太宝生平简介:
1941年:诞生,新加坡公民。
1957年:16岁;华侨中学第16届高三毕业。
1961年:20岁;南洋大学第3届物理系理学士学位;曾任南大学生会第2,3,4届副主席。
1963-1966年:22-25岁;裕廊选区社阵国会议员。
1966年10月29日:25岁;未经法庭审讯囚禁。
1985年:44岁;无理囚禁19年后,人民行动党政府指控为马共成员。
1989年:48岁;从樟宜大牢‘释放’,软禁圣淘沙岛;自付生话住宿费。
1992年:51岁;允许日间回返本岛探访年迈父母亲。
1997年11月:56岁;允许接受德国政府奖学金到汉堡进修德文,经济和政治学。
1998年:57岁;政府解除一切限制令约束,重获言论与行动自由;发表文告谴责并要求废除内安法令。
2000年:59岁:荷兰海牙社会研究所发展经济学硕士学位。
2006年:65岁;荷兰海牙社会研究所哲学博士学位。

其他:
谢太宝在大学毕业后曾担任中学教师和南洋大学物理系助教。1961年南洋大学马来语演讲比赛冠军;早年精通华文,英文,马来文,晚年则学习德文和荷兰文。李光耀的人民行动党政府剥夺谢太宝人生自由共32年,超过南非曼德拉的25年囚禁记录。谢太宝对如此不人道待遇的回应是:并无对任何人怀恨在心,包括当年囚禁他的李光耀及那些残酷对待他的人;斗争非反对任何个人,而是反对不公正的政策与制度。

谢太宝的博士论文:
转植或者是内部原生?发展中国家的外来投资与工业升级:印度尼西亚的个案研究。

关键词:外来投资,直接投资,工业化,工业创新,跨国企业,汽车工业,电子工业;地理范围:印度尼西亚。

博士论文概述:
这篇论文运用一个新的慨念与分析架构(内部原生理论)来解释外来投资对发展中国家的工业升级所带来的多种影响。论文建议当跨国企业利用东道国的地理优势来内化交易成本时,本地企业必须把跨国企业引进的生产因素内原化,这是为了激发起一个能持续提升的生产能力。跨国企业和东道国是两个互动的体系,既有共同也有对立的利益关系。所能达致的工业升级程度取决于跨国企业的策略和东道国本身的努力。

跨国企业为了确保旗下公司能顺利操作有必要培训本地员工和转移管理知识和技术,因此,这将导致跨国企业在东道国进行工业升级的转植。但是,这种工业升级多局限在低层次,因为跨国企业往往会把主干工艺和高增值作业保留在自已国家内。再者,这也或许会导致本地企业受排挤,并带来生产品贸易逆差和去工业化。要克服这种不良影响并同时提升生产工艺,本地企业必须进行内原化 – 通过和跨国企业的互动去增加创造本地的生产因素包括基础设施,人力和知识资本,以掌握工艺科技和创新从而往加值链的上线发展。由于在一般情况下,发展中国家的本地企地会比跨国企业脆弱,所以政府机构和以社会主义为导向的市场经济机构(社经机构)如行业商联会组织的支持也是不可或缺的因素。

内部原生理论强调各经济角色之间的协同增效功能,但认为本地企业必须在这一过程中采取主动角色。

为了证实这理论,论文进行个案调查以日本在印度尼西亚的汽车与电子工业的投资为对象。

论文设定经济指标以度量内原效益和工业升级,在审核中按国际标准工业分类规格区分跨国企业和本地企业的数据,采用产品抽样调查以及对各别工厂进行实地考查收集个体作业资料。论文也探讨日本的外国直接投资略策,印度尼西亚的外国投资法令,工业与科技政策以及社经机构在收集宏观与社经阶层资料上的功能。这一个研究调查范畴包括访问超过100家企业和30家政府机构与社经机构。

研究结果显示在印度尼西亚的外来投资经验是基于转植而不是内原的工业升级,这主要是因为外来投资在本质上具有偏袒性,政府在工业与科技政策上缺乏统一性,而且也欠缺社经机构以及本地企业的本身缺乏内原功能。但是,一些具有较佳商业意识的本地企业,则能拥有更好的熟练工人,能为更大的市场进行生产,也能使用更多的本地生产因素和运用更多元化的生产工艺,也就更能掌握内原性的工业升级。这一项研究也置入另外亚细安-4成员国的数据(马来西亚,泰国和菲律宾)来支持内部原生理论,以及提出一些建议以改进有关政策的策划。

资料来源:Routledge: Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2006: 377–87 http://rspas.anu.edu.au/economics/bies/docs/BIESDec06ThesisAbstracts.pdf

Transplanted or Endogenized? FDI and Industrial Upgrading in Developing Countries: Case Study of Indonesia
Chia Thye Poh (chia@iss.nl)
PhD thesis 2006, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

This dissertation develops a new concept and analytical framework (the ‘endogenisation thesis’) to explain the different impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI) on industrial upgrading in developing countries. It proposes that while multinational enterprises (MNEs) make use of the location advantage of the host country to internalise arm’s length transaction costs, local firms have to ‘endogenise’ the production factors brought in by the MNEs so as to achieve a self-evolved and sustainable upgrading of their capabilities. MNEs and the host country are two interacting systems with common but also conflicting interests. The results of upgrading depend on both MNE strategies and host country efforts.

For the smooth running of their subsidiaries, MNEs need to train local staff and transfer some management skills and production technologies, thus fostering a transplanted upgrading in the host country. However, such upgrading is generally at a low level, with MNEs tending to keep core technology and higher valueadded activities at home. Moreover, they may crowd out local firms, causing a manufacturing trade deficit and de-industrialisation. To overcome such negative impacts and achieve better upgrading, local firms would need to ‘endogenise’— to foster the creation of local production factors including physical, human and knowledge capital through interaction with MNEs, build up their technological capability and innovate, so as to move up the value-chain ladder. As local firms in developing countries are generally weak vis-à-vis the MNEs, support from government agencies and meso-institutions such as industry associations is indispensable.

The endogenisation thesis emphasises synergy among various actors, but places the central role with local firms.

To substantiate the thesis, a case study of Japanese FDI in Indonesia’s automotive and electronics industries is conducted. It develops indicators for measuring endogenisation and industrial upgrading, disaggregates FDI and local industries to the ISIC (International Standard Industrial Classification) 5-digit level, adopts a product-sampling approach, and conducts a firm survey to obtain micro-level data. It also investigates the strategies of inward Japanese FDI, the foreign investment laws, the industrial and technology policies of the Indonesian government, and the functions of meso-institutions, to obtain macro- and mesolevel data. Altogether more than 100 firms and 30 government agencies and mesoinstitutions are interviewed.

The results show that Indonesia experienced only a transplanted and not an endogenised upgrading, owing to the characteristic bias of inward FDI, incoherent government industrial and technology policy, inadequate meso-institutions, and the weak endogenisation capability of local firms. However, some local firms with better entrepreneurship and more highly skilled workers, manufacturing products for a wider market, using more local materials, and with diversified technology sources, have been able to endogenise and upgrade more effectively. This research also incorporates evidence from the other ASEAN-4 countries (Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines) to substantiate the endogenisation thesis, and offers suggestions for improved policy making in this field.

[MESO: Market Economy with Socialist Orientation]

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分类题材: 人物_biogphy , 南洋大学史实_ntah

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